HPC Clusters in the Cloud
One of the early demands from the eScience community was to run MPI programs in the cloud. While we feel that HPC is best left for the traditional HPC clusters and supercomputers, it is possible to deploy an HPC cluster on AWS and on Azure. We describe this in the book Cloud Computing for Science and Engineering in Chapter 7.2.3.
Containers for HPC.
Containers are an extremely important component of cloud computing. However, the ones used in the cloud, namely Docker are not well suited for use in supercomputing environments. Singularity is a variation on the container concept that allows you to build a container that encapsulates an MPI program safely for supercomputer environments. We discuss that with example in this article.